Sunday, December 11, 2011

Keterampilan Dasar Komunikasi - Questioning


LEADING/ QUESTIONING
Leading Adalah teknik yang digunakan oleh konselor untuk mengarahkan pembicaraan konseli secara langsung. Teknik ini juga sering disebut dengan teknik questioning (bertanya) karena dalam praktiknya banyak menggunakan kalimat tanya.

Manfaat Menggunakan Teknik Lead
  1. Mengarahkan konseling sesuai tujuan/ke arah yang spesifik
  2. Menunjukkan bahwa konselor memperhatikan
  3. Mengajak konseli untuk menguji perilakunya
  4. Refleksi

Hal-hal yang Perlu Diperhatikan dalam Penggunaan Teknik Lead
  1. Gunakan lead seminimal mungkin untuk menghindari kesan menginterogasi
  2. Pada awal konseling hendaknya menggunakan lead umum
  3. Teknik lead dapat digunakan bersama (digabung) dengan teknik lain

Jenis-Jenis Lead
  1. Lead Umum
Lead umum adalah arahan/pertanyaan yang memberikan kesempatan kepada konseli untuk mengelaborasi, mengeksplorasi, atau memberikan jawaban dari berbagai kemungkinan sesuai dengan keinginannya.
  1. Lead Khusus
Lead khusus adalah adalah arahan/pertanyaan yang membatasi konseli untuk memberikan reaksi/jawaban yang spesifik/tertentu.

Bentuk-Bentuk Pertanyaan yang Dapat Digunakan
  1. Opened Question
Open questions are designed to facilitate verbal output. By denition, open questions require more than a single-word response; they cannot be answered with a simple yes or no. Ordinarily, open questions begin with the word How or What.Writers sometimes classify questions that begin with Where, When, Why, and/or Who as open questions, but such questions are really only partially open because they don’t facilitate talk nearly as well as How andWhat questions
  1. Closed Question
Closed questions can be answered with a yes or no response. Although some people classify them as open, questions that begin with Who, Where, or When direct clients toward very specic information; therefore, we believe they generally should be considered closed questions
  1. Swing Question
Swing questions can be answered with a yes or no, but are designed to produce a more elaborate discussion of feelings, thoughts, or issues (Shea, 1998). In a sense, swing questions inquire as to whether the client wants to respond. Such questions usually begin with Could, orWould, Can, or Will.
  1. Indirect Question
Indirect or implied questions often begin with I wonder or You must or It must. They are used when interviewers are curious about what clients are
thinking or feeling, but don’t want to pressure clients to respond.
“You must have some thoughts or feelings about your parents’ divorce.”
“It must be hard for you to cope with the loss of your health.”
  1. Projective Question
Projective questions help clients identify, articulate, and explore and clarify unconscious or unclear conflicts, values, thoughts, and feelings. Projective questions beginwith some form of What if and invite client speculation. Often, projective questions are used to trigger mental imagery and help clients explore thoughts, feelings, and behaviors they might have if they were in a particular situation.

No comments:

Post a Comment